Tuesday, February 26, 2013

Maggid of Mezrich on Ki Tissa

“Remember Abraham, etc...”[1] There is a quote from the Zohar: “He took hold of the arm and the body of the King...”[2] For the Tzaddik is connected to the Holy Blessed One. For where one thinks, there one is. When one thinks of The Holy Blessed One, one is connected to the Holy Blessed One. And if one thinks about the worlds, one is connected to the worlds, and the worlds are [also] connected to the Holy Blessed One. This is the meaning of the verse “The Eyes of HaShem lie upon the Tzaddikim”.[3] The word “eyes” is actually referring to [divine] providence. For HaShem’s providence has been given over to the hands of the Tzaddikim. And by their hands Gd presides over all the worlds. This is the meaning of “your eyes are on the field that you will harvest.”[4] This is referring to the eyes of this tzaddik. For when he is presiding over the field, it is, as if, so to speak, the Blessed One is presiding over this field. And the blessing lies on him. [This happens] By means of what is described in the Zohar, “Worthy is the master who teaches that his face is the face of the Shechinah. It is from inside of him and from inside of his brother...[5]” This is the meaning of he held His arm and His Body. For he [Moses] was connected to the Holy Blessed One and to Yisrael. Therefore Gd could not do them harm. Therefore [ve-hinicha li]” Exodus 32:10: י וְעַתָּה הַנִּיחָה לִּי, וְיִחַר-אַפִּי בָהֶם וַאֲכַלֵּם; וְאֶעֱשֶׂה אוֹתְךָ, לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל Now therefore let Me alone, that My wrath may wax hot against them, and that I may consume them; and I will make of thee a great nation.' “ For when I grasp you, so to speak, I was grasping the Holy Blessed One. 

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------- [1] Exodus 32:11-14: וַיְחַל מֹשֶׁה, אֶת-פְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו; וַיֹּאמֶר, לָמָה יְהוָה יֶחֱרֶה אַפְּךָ בְּעַמֶּךָ, אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם, בְּכֹחַ גָּדוֹל וּבְיָד חֲזָקָה. And Moses besought the LORD his God, and said: 'LORD, why doth Thy wrath wax hot against Thy people, that Thou hast brought forth out of the land of Egypt with great power and with a mighty hand? לָמָּה יֹאמְרוּ מִצְרַיִם לֵאמֹר, בְּרָעָה הוֹצִיאָם לַהֲרֹג אֹתָם בֶּהָרִים, וּלְכַלֹּתָם, מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה; שׁוּב מֵחֲרוֹן אַפֶּךָ, וְהִנָּחֵם עַל-הָרָעָה לְעַמֶּךָ. Wherefore should the Egyptians speak, saying: For evil did He bring them forth, to slay them in the mountains, and to consume them from the face of the earth? Turn from Thy fierce wrath, and repent of this evil against Thy people. זְכֹר לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיִשְׂרָאֵל עֲבָדֶיךָ, אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתָּ לָהֶם בָּךְ, וַתְּדַבֵּר אֲלֵהֶם, אַרְבֶּה אֶת-זַרְעֲכֶם כְּכוֹכְבֵי הַשָּׁמָיִם; וְכָל-הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת אֲשֶׁר אָמַרְתִּי, אֶתֵּן לְזַרְעֲכֶם, וְנָחֲלוּ, לְעֹלָם. Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, Thy servants, to whom Thou didst swear by Thine own self, and saidst unto them: I will multiply your seed as the stars of heaven, and all this land that I have spoken of will I give unto your seed, and they shall inherit it for ever.' וַיִּנָּחֶם, יְהוָה, עַל-הָרָעָה, אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר לַעֲשׂוֹת לְעַמּוֹ. And the LORD repented of the evil which He said He would do unto His people. [2] Zohar, Shemoth II: 193b (trans. Soncino) ”The ‘other side’ can be drawn to every place, especially in this land (the Holy Land), where it is eager to dwell.” But the “other side” could only be represented in the guise of an ox. Why, then, did he put up two calves? Because he thought, “In the wilderness dwelt those sorcerers of whom it says that ‘their flesh is the flesh of asses’. Here are those two same evil spirits; let them be clothed in the manner appropriate to them, as male and female-male in Bethel and female in Dan”. And so, indeed, it was. And since, as we are told, “The lips of the strange woman (idolatry) drop as an honeycomb”, the Israelites were drawn with a special bewitchment towards the female of the kind, as it is written, “And the people went to (worship) before the one, unto Dan” (I Kings XII, 29). Therefore there were two calves, and Jeroboam attracted them unto the Holy Land, and this thing became a sin to him and to Israel, and he prevented blessings from coming down onto the world; and concerning him it is written, ‘Whoso robbeth his father and his mother, and saith, It is no transgression, the same is the companion of a destroyer” (Prov. XXVIII, 24). Therefore, also, they were calves, because the first disguise or garment donned by the powers of the “other side” is an ox, as we have pointed out. And if it be asked why they were calves and not oxen, the answer is that it is ever thus with the demons of unholiness: they first appear in a diminutive form. Therefore, my beloved children, since they (the “mixed multitude”) desired the aspect of Elohim, and the act (of the golden calf) was carried out with an intention in which the “side” of Elohim was kept in mind, that Holy Elohim, the “Mother” (the Shekinah), who doth ever keep back the Right Hand of the King (when He is about to punish His people) and holds up the lash, was not present there; so it was necessary for Moses to take Her place; and as soon as the Holy One awakened a certain uneasiness in him, he comprehended what it meant. Three times did the Holy One rouse this feeling in him, as it is written, “Now therefore let Me”; “that My wrath may wax hot against them and that I may consume them”; “and I will make of thee a great nation”. Moses showed his wisdom in responding to these three intimations. He took hold of the Right Arm, which action corresponded to the first warning; he took hold of the Left Arm, and this corresponded to the second; he embraced the Body of the King, which corresponded to the last. And when he had embraced the “Body”, and the two Arms, the one from this and the other from that side, He could not move to any side. This was Moses’ wisdom: that he perceived, by means of the Lord's signs, which place to take hold of; and he did all things in wisdom.’ R. Eleazar and the Companions then approached him and kissed his hands. R. Abba was also present. Said he: ‘Had I come into this world only to hear these words, it would have been worth while.’ Then he wept, and said: ‘Woe unto us, Master, when thou shalt depart from the world! Who will then light up for us the greater radiances of the Torah? This subject was hidden in darkness until now, but at last it has emerged and shines even unto the highest heavens. It is engraved upon the Throne of the King, the Holy One Himself rejoices in this discourse. Joy upon joy has been added before the face of the Holy King. Who will awaken words of wisdom in this world as thou dost?’[Tr. note: From here to the end of Ki Tisa is a verbal repetition of Zohar, Gen., 52a-53a (“Until he sinned... caused that imperfection”)]. [3] Tehillim 34:16 also see Zohar II:252a [4] Ruth 2:9 [5] Zohar II:163b: R. Jose, R. Judah, and R. Hiya, were riding together, when R. Eleazar suddenly met them. On seeing him they all alighted from their asses. Said R. Eleazar: ‘Verily I behold the face of the Shekinah! For, to see the righteous and saintly of one's generation is to see the very face of the Shekinah. And why are these called the face of the Shekinah? Because in them is the Shekinah hidden: She is hidden in them, and they reveal Her. For they who are the friends of the Shekinah and are near to Her, are regarded as Her “face”. And who are they? They are those with and by whom She adorns Herself in order to appear before the Supernal King. Now, as you are three, the Shekinah is surely in your midst!’ He then forthwith began to expound these words of Jacob to Esau: “Take, I pray thee, my blessing that is brought to thee” (Gen. XXXIII, 11). ‘When Jacob’, said he, ‘saw on that night the Accuser, Samael, he saw him in the form of Esau, and it was not until dawn was breaking that he recognized him as Samael. When the dawn broke, he looked at him closely, but even then he appeared at times to be the one and then the other. He then looked more closely still and he knew him for the celestial representative of Esau, and he prevailed against him. He said to Jacob, “Let me go, for the dawn breaketh” (Ibid. XXXII, 26), and the companions have already explained that he said this, because the moment had arrived when he, the representative of Esau, had to raise his voice in hymns to the Holy One. On this we may remark that indeed the power of Samael is only in the ascendant in the dark, as indicated in the words, “of fear in the night” (Ps. XCI, 5), namely, the fear of Gehenna; so it is that he rules at night alone. Hence he said, “Let me go, for the dawn breaketh”, for when morning comes and his power is on the wane, he must depart, and he and his hosts must enter the recess of the abyss in the North, and they must remain until night breaks in on them, and the dogs are loosened from their chains and allowed to roam about till morning. That is why he pressed Jacob to let him go. In the same way Israel's exile has taken place at night, it is in fact called “night”. The evil kingdom (Rome), the pagan power, rules over Israel until the morning shall again appear, and the Holy One, blessed be He, will cause the light to dawn again and the heathen power shall wane and at last disappear. Therefore it was that Esau's representative said, “Let me go, for the dawn breaketh”. But Jacob held him, and his power weakened, because night had passed, so Jacob's strength increased, and he saw, in that angel, the image of Esau, but not quite clearly. Then the angel confirmed the blessings he had received. And what was it that Jacob afterwards said to Esau? “For therefore I have seen thy face, as though I had seen the face of God, and thou wast pleased with me” (Gen. XXXIII, 10). For he saw in Esau's face now the very image of Samael as he had appeared to him, for the realm to which a person belongs is revealed in his face. And ye, supernal saints, the Shekinah is in you, and your faces reflect the beauty of Her face. Blessed are ye!’ Then said he also: ‘If we were going in the same direction, I would be in your midst; but now, as ye must go one way, and I another, I will part from you with words...
כי תשא
 קד [ועתה הניחה לי גו'] זכור לאברהם כו'. איתא בזוהר אחיד ליה בדרועא וגופא דמלכא. כי הצדיק הוא מקושר להש"י. שכל מקום שחושב [נ"א: שאדם חושב] שם הוא, וכשחושב בהש"י אזי הוא מקושר להש"י. ואם חושב בהעולמות אז הוא מקושר להעולמות, ונמצא מקשר [את] העולמות עם הקב"ה. וזהו פי' עיני ה' אל צדיקים, עין נקרא ההשגחה, שהשגחה שלו מסורה ביד הצדיקים, ועל ידיהם הוא משגיח על העולמות. וזהו פי' עיניך בשדה אשר יקצורון, ר"ל עינים של האי צדקת, [דהיא היתה צדיקת] וכשהיתה משגחת על השדה היה כביכול הוא ית' משגיח על זה השדה, והיתה הברכה שורה בו, ע"ד זכאין מארי מתניתין דאנפוי אנפי שכינתא, איהו מלגאו ואינהו מלבר. וזהו אחיד ליה בדרועוי ובגופו, פי' שהי' מקושר בו ית' ובישראל. לפיכך לא היה יכול לעשות להם רע. לכך אמר הניחה לי, וכי תופס אני בך, ובאמת כביכול היה תופס בו ית' כנ"ל.
 ----- מקורות ומראה מקומות ----- אוה"א ד, ב. לקו"א לו, א. [ועתה הניחה לי גו' – כי תשא לב, י]. זכור לאברהם גו' – כי תשא לב, יג. אחיד ליה כו' – תקו"ז תכ"א נד, ב. זח"ב קצג, ב. עיני ה' גו' – תהלים לד, טז. עין נקרא ההשגחה – אמו"ד לרס"ג מ"ב ריש פ"י. של"ה מס' פסחים דרוש ג' לשבת הגדול ד"ה אך צריכין. ראה זח"ב רנב, א. עיניך בשדה גו' – רות ב, ט. זכאין מארין מתניתין כו' – ראה זח"ב קסג, ב. הניחה לי – כי תשא לב, י. וכי תופס אני בך כו' – שמ"ר מב, ט. ----- הערות וציונים ----- שכל מקום שחושב כו' – ראה סי' סט ובהערות שם. שהשגחה שלו מסורה ביד הצדיקים – ראה סי' ריט.

Tuesday, February 19, 2013

Maggid of Mezrich-- Tetzaveh

Maggid of Mezrich --Torah Ohr--Tetzaveh

You shall command [ve-atah tetzaveh] the children of Israel as follows: you shall bring to bring you clear olive oil [shemen zayit zach][1]...” This can be understood from the Gemara which says: “Betzalel knew how to permute the letters through which the heaven and earth were created.”[2] The mishkan was the life-force of all the worlds.[3] This can be grasped through a parable: the soul is the life-force of the entire body. However, the soul, by itself has no image, we can only name it with the name of body parts, that is, that it is the life force animating the hand or the foot.

If this is so, Betzalel, who made the Mishkan, which is the soul of all the worlds, needed to know how to put the life-force into the worlds. He needed to know the letters through which the worlds were created.  Furthermore, everything that was in the worlds was in the Mishkan.[4] For proof of this, it was written in the Gemara “with ten[5] utterances was the world created.”[6] There is a dispute there between rabbis about whether there are 9 or 10 times God caused things to come into being. But, “The words ‘in the beginning’ are also an utterance”[7]

There is a difficulty as to why it didn’t say, “and God said to him, [vayomer]” How such a thing was said, there is no understanding. It can only be understood on its lower level, and this appears in the Translation [Targum], for the translation of the word dibbur, or speech is “aresht”[8] And this “speech” “dibbur” is the base matter from of all the utterances [ma’amarim], from which all of the 9 other utterances originated.

And the Mishkan [which was a reflection of above] needed to be like this. This is the menorah. which Moshe Rabbeinu had a difficulty with[9]. And it could not be made by any man’s hands from among them, for on it was the witness that the Shechinah rested on Israel[10]. And this is called “shemen zayit”.- Olive oil. For the brilliance of itself rested upon it, like the light on the oil. And all of the other utterances are called “zayit” olive for the oil is contained within it.

Therefore the words “vayedaber adonai lemoshe lemor” - “HaShem spoke to Moses saying...” or “and HaShem said to Moses...”[Vayomer...] do not appear here.

For this is the interpretation of the phrase shemen zayit -- olive oil:-- its “dibbur” --its source --is not able to be understood, not even with the words vayomer, which are words expressing a thought about something, [so] it doesn’t belong [here].[11]

[1] Exodus 27:20: (JPS): “You shall further instruct the Israelites to bring you clear oil of beaten olives for lighting, for kindling lamps regularly. Aaron and his sons shall set them up in the Tent of Meeting, outside the curtain which is over [the Ark of] the Pact, [to burn] from evening to morning before the Lord. It shall be a due from the Israelites for all time, throughout the ages.”
[2] Brachot 55a: “ Rab Judah said in the name of Rab: Bezalel knew how to permute the letters by which the heavens and earth were created. It is written here, And He hath filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom and in understanding, and in knowledge, and it is written elsewhere, The Lord by wisdom founded the earth; by understanding He established the heavens,25  and it is also written, By His knowledge the depths were broken up.26 R. Johanan said: The Holy One, blessed be He, gives wisdom only to one who already has wisdom, as it says, He giveth wisdom unto the wise, and knowledge to them that know understanding. R. Tahlifa from the West heard and repeated it before R. Abbahu. He said to him: You learn it from there, but we learn it from this text, namely, In the hearts of all that are wise-hearted I have put wisdom.
[3] Numbers Rabbah (12:11): "Who hath established all the ends of the earth? ' Did Moses, then, establish all the ends of the earth? No; but he set up the Tent of Meeting and with it the world also was set firm. R. Joshua b. Levi expounded this in the name of R. Simeon b. Yohai: It is not written in the text, ' Setting up the tabernacle ' (Num. VII, 1), but SETTING UP ETH3 THE TABERNACLE which indicates that he set up, together with this one, another tabernacle which is called ‘tent’, just as the Tabernacle was called ‘Tent of Meeting’; as you read, Spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in (Isa. XL, 22). For before the Tabernacle was set up the world was unstable, but when the Tabernacle was erected the world was firmly established. For this reason it says, SETTING UP ETH THE TABERNACLE."
[4] Zohar II:231b: Now, the Tabernacle below was likewise made after the pattern of the supernal Tabernacle in all its details. For the Tabernacle in all its works embraced all the works and achievements of the upper world and the lower, whereby the Shekinah was made to abide in the world, both in the higher spheres and the lower. Similarly, the Lower Paradise is made after the pattern of the Upper Paradise, and the latter contains all the varieties of forms and images to be found in the former. Hence the work of the Tabernacle, and that of heaven and earth, come under one and the same mystery. It is written: “Lift up your eyes on high, and see: who hath created these? He that bringeth out their hosts by number.... Not one faileth” (Isa. XL, 26). Are we to imagine from this that by lifting his eyes upwards a man can know and see what is not permitted to know and see? No. The true meaning of the passage is that whoever desires to reflect on and to obtain a knowledge of the works of the Holy One, blessed be He, let him lift his eyes upwards and gaze on the myriads of the hosts and legions of existences there, each different from the other, each mightier than the other. Then will he, while gazing, ask, “Who created these?” Indeed, as has already been expounded elsewhere, “Who created these?” amounts to saying that the whole of creation springs from a region that remains an everlasting “Who?” (Mi?), in that it remains undisclosed. “He that bringeth out their host by number”, for inasmuch as that region is undisclosed it brings forth everything by means of the sound that issues from the trumpet, the sound that constitutes the “number” of all the celestial hosts and the sum of the whole of creation; and from thence also proceeds the mystery of sublime faith through all the supernal “sides”, and then extending in grade after grade downwards...
[6] Rosh HaShanah 32b:
[6]GEMARA. To what do these ten kingship verses correspond? — R. Levi said, To the ten praises that David uttered in the book of Psalms. But there are a large number of praises there? — It means, those among which occurs, Praise him with the blowing of the shofar. R. Joseph said: To the ten commandments that were spoken to Moses on Sinai. R. Johanan said: To the ten Utterances by means of which the world was created. Which are they? The phrase ‘and he said’ occurs in the account of the creation only nine times? — The words ‘in the beginning’ are also an utterance, as it is written, By the word of the Lord the heavens were made.
[7] Ibid.
[8]Psalms 21:3:
[8]ג  תַּאֲוַת לִבּוֹ, נָתַתָּה לּוֹ;    וַאֲרֶשֶׁת שְׂפָתָיו, בַּל-מָנַעְת
[8]3 Thou hast given him his heart's desire, and the request of his lips Thou hast not withholden. Selah
[9] Numbers Rabbah 15:4--”Another exposition of the expression, WHEN THOU LIGHTEST. You find that Moses experienced more difficulty in understanding the construction of the candlestick than he did in that of all the other vessels of the Tabernacle, until the Holy One, blessed be He, showed it to him with His finger. “
[10] Zohar I:74a--
[10]And the house in its being built, was built of stone made ready at the quarry; and there was neither hammer nor axe nor any tool of iron heard in the house in its being built (I Kings VI, 7). He said: The phrase “in its being built” (behibbonotho) implies self-building, as though without the hands of artisans. Were not, then, Solomon with all his workpeople engaged in the work of building? It was here as with the candlestick, in regard to which we read, “And thou shalt make... of beaten work will the candlestick be made” (Ex. XXV, 31). If the candlestick was to be made of itself, why say “thou shalt make it”? In reality it was made of itself, by a miracle. So soon as the artisans set their hands to the work, it showed them how to proceed in a manner quite novel to them, the reason being that the blessing of the Almighty rested on their hands; and similarly here, in the building of the Sanctuary. It was built of its own accord, though seemingly by the hands of the labourers; it showed the workers a design which guided their hands and from which they did not turn their eyes until the whole building of the house was completed.
[10]Shabbat 22b:
[10]R. Shesheth objected: Without the vail of testimony ... shall [Aaron] order it: does He then require its light: surely, during the entire forty years that the Israelites travelled in the wilderness they travelled only by His light! But it is a testimony to mankind7 that the Divine Presence rests in Israel. What is the testimony? — Said Rab: That was the western branch [of the candelabrum ] in which the same quantity of oil was poured as into the rest, and yet he kindled [the others] from it and ended therewith.
[11] “Vayomer” being words relating to thought see Zohar II:17a.

Maggid on Tetzaveh Hebrew

ואתה תצוה את בני ישראל ויקחו אליך שמן זית זך. על דרך [נ"א: איתא בגמרא] יודע היה בצלאל לצרף אותיות שנבראו בהם שמים וארץ. המשכן היה חיות של כל העולמות. ויובן על דרך משל הנשמה היא חיות [כל] הגוף. והנשמה בעצמה אין לה תמונה, רק אנו מכנים אותה בשם הגוף זו חיו"ת היד או הרגל. (ואפילו) [ואם כן] בצלאל שעשה המשכן, שהוא חיות העולמות, הוצרך לידע האיך להכניס החיות בהעולמות, והוצרך לידע האותיות שנבראו בהם העולמות. וכל מה שיש בעולמות היה במשכן. ואיתא בעשרה מאמרות נברא העולם, ופריך והלא ט' הוויין, ומשני בראשית נמי מאמר הוא. וקשה למה לא כתוב ויאמר. אך המאמר הזה אינו מושג, רק המדריגה תחתונה שלו מושג וזהו התרגום, דתרגום של דבור הוא ארש"ת. והדבר [נ"א: והדבור] ההוא הוא היולי של כל המאמרים, שכל [התשעה] המאמרים ממנו באו. ובמשכן היה ג"כ צריך להיות זאת. וזאת היתה המנורה, שמשה רבינו ע"ה נתקשה בה ולא היתה יכולה ליעשות ע"י אדם כ"א מאליה, שעליה [נ"א: שעל ידה הוא] העדות שהשכינה שורה בישראל. וזהו נקרא שמן זית, שהבהירות בעצמה שורה עליה כמו האור על השמן. וכל שאר המאמרים נקראים זית שהשמן אגור בתוכו.
ולכך לא כתוב בפרשה זאת וידבר ה' אל משה או ויאמר [ה' אל משה], כי זה פי' של שמן זית והדבור שלו אינו מושג, אפילו ויאמר, לשון מחשבה, לא שייך.

-----  מקורות ומראה מקומות  -----
אוה"א ה, ב. לקו"א לז, ב.
ואתה תצוה גו' – תצוה כז, כ. יודע היה בצלאל כו' – ברכות נה, א. המשכן היה חיות כו' – במ"ר יב, יא. ראה של"ה תושב"כ פ' תרומה תו"א, ושם בהגה"ה. וכל מה שיש בעולמות היה במשכן – זח"ב רלא, ב. תנחומא פקודי ב. מדרש תדשא ב. בעשרה מאמרות כו' – אבות פ"ה מ"א. ופריך כו' ומשני כו' – ר"ה לב, א. ארשת – תהלים כא, ג, ראה שם במצודת ציון (ועיין בהערות). שמשה רבנו ע"ה נתקשה כו' – במ"ר טו, ג. כי אם מאליה – במ"ר טו, ד. זח"א עד, א. זח"ב קנח, א. שעליה העדות כו' – שבת כב, ב. ויאמר לשון מחשבה – זח"ב יז, א. שם כה סע"ב. זח"א רלד, ב.
-----  הערות וציונים  -----
עיקר תוכן דרוש זה בסגנון אחר בלקו"י סי' קכה.
המשכן הוא חיות כל העולמות – ראה סי' יג ובהערות שם.
בראשית נמי מאמר הוא כו' – ראה סי' ג ובהערות שם.
המאמר הזה אינו מושג – ראה כתבי קודש לג רע"א ושם: ותירץ כי בהירות של המאמר הראשון א"א לקבלו.
רק המדריגה תחתונה שלו מושג וזהו התרגום כו' – ראה סוף סי' תלו.
דתרגום של דבור הוא ארש"ת – ראה רבנו בחיי בראשית א, ב: בראשית מלשון ארשת והוא הדבור כענין שכתוב וארשת שפתיו, ובאורו בי' ארשת, כלומר בעשרה מאמרות נברא העולם.

Tuesday, February 12, 2013

Maggid of Mezrich on Parshat Terumah

Maggid of Mezrich
Ohr Torah

“Take for me a terumah/ an offering [etc.] 1” The Rabbis of blessed memory said “li” (to me) means “lishmi” for the sake of my name.2 This means that you will lift up [yitromam] and make great [ve-yitgadal] my name [shemi] by your hands.

This is actually [the meaning] of the phrase “me’et kol ish--from each man’--from one who is “kol ish” all of a man. The significance is that kulo- “all of an individual” is called “ish/man”. This is what it means when the text of the Torah says “yedabeinu libo” each whose heart moves him”, for this is referring to one whose heart is pure and clear to His Father who is in heaven. He is called “kol ish”-”all of a man”.
As the rabbis wrote ‘tzaddikim are called eshkolet3’. This is also the meaning of “all of a man” “kulo ish”. For it is well known that bnei adam (human beings) are not called “adam”, only the soul [is called Adam]. But the body is call basar adam / the flesh of a man. However [in] this [case] when one’s body and heart are [both] purified as one in The Blessed One’s service, one is called “kol ish”, and he is therefore called “eshkolet””. This is the meaning of that which is written “and you will take to you.” This means that together with you they will lift up my terumah-- as it is written “gadlu la’Donai iti, une’romemah shemo yachdav”.-- and understand this very well....

1) The Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 2 Tell the Israelite people to bring Me gifts; you shall accept gifts for Me from every person whose heart so moves him.(Exodus 25:1)
2) See the Rashi on this. 
3)  See the Rashi on this.

המשך פסוקיםפה ויקחו לי תרומה [כו']. והנה אמרו רז"ל לי לשמי, רצה לומר שיתרומם ויתגדל שמי על ידכם, וזהו דווקא מאת כל איש, [ממי] שהוא כל איש, פי' שכולו נקרא איש. וזהו אשר ידבנו לבו, שלבו זך וברור לאביו שבשמים, הוא נקרא כל איש, כמ"ש רז"ל צדיקים נקראו אשכולות. ג"כ פי' שכולו איש, כי סתם בני אדם אין נקראים אדם רק הנשמה, אבל הגוף נקרא בשר אדם. אבל זה שנזדכך גופו ולבו כאחד לעבודתו ית' נקרא כל איש, ולכך נקרא אשכולות.
(וזה) [ומה] שכתוב ויקחו אליך, ר"ל ביחד עמך ירוממו את תרו"מתי, כמ"ש גדלו לה' אתי ונרוממה שמו יחדיו. והבן כל זה היטב מאוד.

-----  מקורות ומראה מקומות  -----
לקו"י לב, ב (סי' רנח). אוה"א עא, א.
ויקחו לי תרומה – תרומה כה, כ. לי לשמי – פרש"י עה"פ. ראה במ"ר טו סוף אות יז. כל איש . . אשכולות – סוטה מז סע"ב. ראה פירוש הרמב"ם והמאירי שם. אדם רק הנשמה כו' – ראה זח"א כ, ב. זח"ב עו רע"א. זח"ג רטז, א. ויקחו אליך – תצוה כז, כ. גדלו לה' גו' – תהלים לד, ד.
-----  שולי הגליון  -----
פה) הלשון צע"ק. ובמקבילות אין המילים המשך פסוקים.
-----  הערות וציונים  -----
המשך הפסוקים – הלשון צע"ק, ואולי צ"ל המשך הפסוק, כלומר ויקחו ע"י תרומה . . מאת כל איש.
לומר שיתרומם – תרומה לשון רם, התרוממות (ראה זח"ג קעט, א). ראה סי' קכג סד"ה וי"ל.
ממי שהוא כל איש כו' – מבואר באוה"ת להצ"צ פ' תרומה ע' א'שסג.
ומ"ש ויקחו אליך כו' – צ"ע דפסוק זה בר"פ תצוה בענין השמן. ואולי צ"ל סוף הפסוק דידן תקחו את תרומתי. ונ"ל יותר בהשוואת הפסוק דלקמן גדלו . . ונרוממה. וראה לקמן ריש סי' קג.

Monday, February 11, 2013

Some Selected Demonology Quotes from the Talmud

The Talmud on Demons (a selection of references)
Ashmodai as Depicted in Collin de Plancy's Dictionnaire Infernal.

Pesachim 112b

‘And do not go out alone at night’, for it was taught: One should not go out alone at night, i.e., on the nights of neither Wednesday nor Sabbaths, because Igrath the daughter of Mahalath,25 she and one hundred eighty thousand destroying angels go forth, and each has permission to wreak destruction independently. Originally they were about a day. On one occasion she met R. Hanina b. Dosa [and] said to him, ‘Had they not made an announcement concerning you in Heaven, "Take heed of Hanina and his learning," I would have put you in danger.’ ‘If I am of account in Heaven,’ replied he, ‘I order you never to pass through settled regions.’ ‘I beg you,’ she pleaded, ‘leave me a little room.’ So he left her the nights of Sabbaths and the nights of Wednesdays. On another occasion she met Abaye. Said she to him, ‘Had they not made an announcement about you in Heaven, "Take heed of Nahmani26 and his learning," I would have put you in danger.’ ‘If I am of account in Heaven,’ replied he, ‘I order you never to pass through settled regions.’ But we see that she does pass through? — I will tell you: Those are
(1) Euphemism: The wife thinks always of her first husband.
(2) Lit., ‘hire.’
(3) Lit., ‘a large body’. The passage is a difficult one, particularly with the reading of the ed. לא, but it would seem to refer to lending money on a field and receiving some of its produce in part repayment. But as its value is probably calculated at less than market price, this is a profitable investment, yet at the same time there is no actual interest. Such a transaction is permitted (B.M. 67b). ‘Ar. and MS.M. read: ולו, and Jast. accordingly translates: An act of charity and at the same time a good investment is the act of him who helps to produce fruits, while he has the reward (e.g. , one who loans money to a husbandman on security, allowing payment in small instalments).
(4) I.e., R. Judah ha-Nasi.
(5) A town in Babylonia, on the cast side of the Tigris; v. Obermeyer, Landschaft, pp. 190f. It is there (p. 191, n. 4) pointed out, however, that R. Judah, a Palestinian, would have had no occasion to warn his children against living in a town in Babylonia, nor could he have known the character of its inhabitants well enough to justify this warning; hence it is conjectured that ‘Raba’ should be read here instead.
(6) V. Ber. 8b.
(7) Rashbam: the ox is mad, as explained infra.
(8) The first month-about April.
(9) The technical name of an ox that has not yet gored three times. When it has, it is called mu'ad.
(10) With which to chase it away or to urge it to work.
(11) Perhaps the ancient equivalent of ‘yo heave ho’. [MS.M. reads simply: ‘hayya, hayya’].
(12) Leprosy.
(13) Rashi and Rashbam. I.e., before it is completely dressed.
(14) Probably mullet (Jast.).
(15) At a bath.
(16) Which it may still contain.
(17) MS.M.: Without shoes.
(18) V. p. 348, n. 8. M == Mum (blemish); K == mekah (a purchase); SH == ishteka (your wife).
(19) Lit., ‘stand over.’
(20) V. B.M. 58b and notes a.l. in Sonc. ed.
(21) By which a woman performs tebillah seven days after the beginning of menstruation, even if menstruation lasted all the seven days. Subsequently, however, it was enacted that she must wait seven days from the end of menstruation. Rab observes that R. Ishmael's charge held good only when the more lenient Scriptural law was practised.
(22) I.e., her blood-flow has continued almost until tebillah.
(23) During intimacy.
(24) Through the heat.
(25) The queen of demons.
(26) Abaye was so called because he was brought up in the house of Rabbah b. Nahman.
Pesachim 110a:

R. Joseph said: The demon Joseph told me [that] Ashmedai the king of the demons is appointed over all pairs.’16 and a king is not designated a harmful spirit.17 Others explain it in the opposite sense: On the contrary, a king is quick-tempered [and] does whatever he wishes, for a king can break through a wall to make a pathway for himself and none may stay him.18

R. Papa said, Joseph the demon told me: For two we kill; for four we do not kill, [but] for four we harm [the drinker]. For two [we hurt] whether [they are drunk] unwittingly or deliberately; for four, only if it is deliberate, but not if it is unwitting. And if a man forgot himself and happened to go out,19 what is his remedy? Let him take his right-hand thumb in his left hand and his left-hand thumb in his right hand and say thus: ‘Ye [two thumbs] and I, surely that is three!20 But if he hears one saying, ‘Ye and I, surely that is four!’ let him retort to him, ‘Ye and I are surely five!’ And if he hears one saying, ‘Ye and I are six,’ let him retort to him, ‘Ye and I are seven.21 This once happened until a hundred and one , and the demon burst [with mortification].

Amemar said: The chief of the sorceresses told me: He who meets sorceresses should say thus: ‘Hot dung in perforated baskets for your mouths, o ye witches! may your heads become bald,22 the wind carry off your crumbs,23

(1) Hence they do not combine.
(2) The second is occasioned by a new desire, and does not combine with, the first.
(3) Through intimacy.
(4) Since eating or drinking in pairs has already made him more susceptible to hurt than he would otherwise have been.
(5) i.e., if he does not go out between the drinks.
(6) That pairs is harmful.
(7) At each cup he mentally counted one beam, to ensure not drinking in pairs.
(8) Likewise that he should not drink in pairs.
(9) Though in a these cases they were remaining at home.
(10) The demons are at greater pains to hurt him; hence he is endangered even when staying at home.
(11) ‘Shalom’ (peace) is the seventh word (in Heb.) of the verse The Lord lift up His countenance upon tee, and give thee peace (Num. VI, 26). Hence the seventh cup combines with others for good etc. as on p. 565, n. 5.
(12) Wiyhuneka is the fifth Hebrew word of the verse, The Lord make His face to shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee (ibid. 25).
(13) This is the third word of the verse, The Lord bless thee, and keep thee (ibid. 24).
(14) Or, the Levite.
(15) He would raise difficulties in the course of my public lectures, thereby putting me to shame.
(16) Those who drink in pairs are at his mercy.
(17) It is beneath his dignity to cause hurt. Hence there is generally no danger in pairs (though occasionally he may disregard his dignity — Rashbam).
(18) Hence the danger is all the greater.
(19) After drinking ‘pairs.’
(20) Thus breaking the spell of pairs.
(21) And so on.
(22) Lit., ‘bald be your baldness’ — they practised witchcraft with their hair.
(23) Likewise used in the practice of witchcraft. Rashbam holds that this is an allusion to Ezek. XIII, 18f, q.v.
Gittin 68a:

The Master said: Here they translate 'male and female demons'. For what did Solomon want them? — As indicated in the verse, And the house when it was in building was made of stone made ready at the quarry, [there was neither hammer nor axe nor any tool of iron heard in the house while it was in building];11  He said to the Rabbis, How shall I manage [without iron tools]? — They replied, There is the shamir12  which Moses brought for the stones of the ephod. He asked them, Where is it to be found? — They replied, Bring a male and a female demon and tie them together; perhaps they know and will tell you. So he brought a male and a female demon and tied them together. They said to him, We do not know, but perhaps Ashmedai the prince of the demons knows. He said to them, Where is he? — They answered, He is in such-and-such a mountain. He has dug a pit there, which he fills with water and covers with a stone, which he then seals with his seal. Every day he goes up to heaven and studies in the Academy of the sky and then he comes down to earth and studies in the Academy of the earth, and then he goes and examines his seal and opens [the pit] and drinks and then closes it and seals it again and goes away. Solomon thereupon sent thither Benaiahu son of Jehoiada, giving him a chain on which was graven the [Divine] Name and a ring on which was graven the Name and fleeces of wool and bottles of wine. Benaiahu went and dug a pit lower down the hill and let the water flow into it13  and stopped [the hollow] With the fleeces of wool, and he then dug a pit higher up and poured the wine into it14  and then filled up the pits. He then went and sat on a tree. When Ashmedai came he examined the seal, then opened the pit and found it full of wine. He said, it is written, Wine is a mocker, strong drink a brawler, and whosoever erreth thereby is not wise,15  and it is also written, Whoredom and wine and new wine take away the understanding.16  I will not drink it. Growing thirsty, however, he could not resist, and he drank till he became drunk, and fell asleep. Benaiahu then came down and threw the chain over him and fastened it. When he awoke he began to struggle, whereupon he [Benaiahu] said, The Name of thy Master is upon thee, the Name of thy Master is upon thee. As he was bringing him along, he came to a palm tree and rubbed against it and down it came. He came to a house and knocked it down. He came to the hut of a certain widow. She came out
Gittin 68b:

and besought him, and he bent down so as not to touch it, thereby breaking a bone. He said, That bears out the verse, A soft tongue breaketh the bone1  He saw a blind man straying from his way and he put him on the right path. He saw a drunken man losing his way and he put him on his path. He saw a wedding procession making its way merrily and he wept. He heard a man say to a shoemaker, Make me a pair of shoes that will last seven years, and he laughed. He saw a diviner practising divinations and he laughed. When they reached Jerusalem he was not taken to see Solomon for three days. On the first day he asked, Why does the king not want to see me? They replied, Because he has overdrunk himself. So he took a brick and placed it on top of another. When they reported this to Solomon he said to them, What he meant to tell you was, Give him more to drink. On the next day he said to them, Why does the king not want to see me? They replied, Because he has over-eaten himself. He thereupon took one brick from off the other and placed it on the ground. When they reported this to Solomon, he said, He meant to tell you to keep food away from me. After three days he went in to see him. He took a reed and measured four cubits and threw it in front of him, saying, See now, when you die you will have no more than four cubits in this world. Now, however, you have subdued the whole world, yet you are not satisfied till you subdue me too. He replied: I want nothing of you. What I want is to build the Temple and I require the shamir. He said: It is not in my hands, it is in the hands of the Prince of the Sea who gives it only to the woodpecker,2  to whom he trusts it on oath. What does the bird do with it? — He takes it to a mountain where there is no cultivation and puts it on the edge of the rock which thereupon splits, and he then takes seeds from trees and brings them and throws them into the opening and things grow there. (This is what the Targum means by nagar tura).3  So they found out a woodpecker's nest with young in it, and covered it over with white glass. When the bird came it wanted to get in but could not, so it went and brought the shamir and placed it on the glass. Benaiahu thereupon gave a shout, and it dropped [the shamir] and he took it, and the bird went and committed suicide on account of its oath.

Benaiahu said to Ashmedai, Why when you saw that blind man going out of his way did you put him right? He replied: It has been proclaimed of him in heaven that he is a wholly righteous man, and that whoever does him a kindness will be worthy of the future world. And why when you saw the drunken man going out of his way did you put him right? He replied, They have proclaimed concerning him in heaven that he is wholly wicked, and I conferred a boon on him in order that he may consume [here] his share [in the future].4  Why when you saw the wedding procession did you weep? He said: The husband will die within thirty days, and she will have to wait for the brother-in-law who is still a child of thirteen years.5  Why, when you heard a man say to the shoemaker, Make me shoes to last seven years, did you laugh? He replied: That man has not seven days to live, and he wants shoes for seven years! Why when you saw that diviner divining did you laugh? He said: He was sitting on a royal treasure: he should have divined what was beneath him.

Solomon kept him with him until he had built the Temple. One day when he was alone with him, he said, it is written, He hath as it were to'afoth and re'em,6  and we explain that to'afoth means the ministering angels and re'em means the demons.7  What is your superiority over us?8  He said to him, Take the chain off me and give me your ring, and I will show you. So he took the chain off him and gave him the ring. He then swallowed him,9  and placing one wing on the earth and one on the sky he hurled him four hundred parasangs. In reference to that incident Solomon said, What profit is there to a man in all his labour wherein he laboureth under the sun.10

And this was my portion from all my labour.11  What is referred to by 'this'? — Rab and Samuel gave different answers, one saying that it meant his staff and the other that it meant his apron.12  He used to go round begging, saying wherever he went, I Koheleth was king over Israel in Jerusalem.13  When he came to the Sanhedrin, the Rabbis said: Let us see, a madman does not stick to one thing only.14  What is the meaning of this? They asked Benaiahu, Does the king send for you? He replied, No. They sent to the queens saying, Does the king visit you? They sent back word, Yes, he does. They then sent to them to say, Examine his leg.15  They sent back to say, He comes in stockings, and he visits them in the time of their separation and he also calls for Bathsheba his mother. They then sent for Solomon and gave him the chain and the ring on which the Name was engraved. When he went in, Ashmedai on catching sight of him flew away, but he remained in fear of him, therefore is it written, Behold it is the litter of Solomon, threescore mighty met, are about it of the mighty men of Israel. They all handle the sword and are expert in war, every man hath his sword upon his thigh because of fear in the night.16

Rab and Samuel differed [about Solomon]. One said that Solomon was first a king and then a commoner,17  and the other that he was first a king and then a commoner and then a king again.

For blood rushing to the head the remedy is to take shurbina18  and willow and moist myrtle and olive leaves and poplar and rosemary and yabla19  and boil them all together. The sufferer should then place three hundred cups on one side of his head and three hundred on the other. Otherwise he should take white roses with all the leaves on one side and boil them and pour sixty cups over each side of his head. For migraine one should take a woodcock and cut its throat with a white zuz20  over the side of his head on which he has pain, taking care that the blood does not blind him, and he should hang the bird on his doorpost so that he should rub against it when he goes in and out.

Pesachim 111b
If one eases oneself on the stump of a palm-tree, the demon Palga1 will seize him, and if one leans one's head on the stump of a palm-tree, the demon Zerada2 will seize him. He who steps over a palm-tree, if it had been cut down, he will be cut down [killed]; if it had been uprooted, he will be uprooted and die. But that is only if he does not place his foot upon it; but if he places his foot upon it, it does not matter.

There are five shades:3 the shade of a single palm-tree, the shade of a kanda-tree,4 the shade of a caper-tree, [and] the shade of sorb bushes.5 Some say: Also the shade of a ship and the shade of a willow. This is the general rule: Whatever has many branches, its shade is harmful, and whatever has hard prickles [or, wood], its shade is harmful, except the service-tree, whose shade is not harmful although its wood is hard, because Shida [the demon] said to her son, ‘Fly from the service-tree, because it is that which killed your father’; and, it also killed him. R. Ashi said: I saw R. Kahana avoid all shades.

[The demons] of caper-trees are [called] Ruhe [spirits]: those of sorb-bushes are [called] Shide [demons]: those which haunt roofs are [called] Rishpe [fiery-bolts]. In respect of what does it matter? In respect of amulets.6 [The demon] of caper-trees is a creature without eyes. What does it matter? In respect of fleeing from it.7 A scholar was once about to ease himself among the caper-trees, when he heard it advancing upon him so he fled from it. Well he had gone, it embraced a palm-tree,8 whereupon the palm-tree cried out9 and it [the demon] burst.

[The demons] of sorb-bushes are [called] Shide. A sorb-bush which is near a town has not less than sixty Shide [demons] [haunting it]. How does this matter? In respect of writing an amulet. A certain town-officer went and stood by a sorb-bush near a town, whereupon he was set upon by sixty demons and his life was in danger. He then went to a scholar who did not know that it was a sorb-bush haunted by sixty demons, and so he wrote a one-demon amulet for it . Then he heard how they suspended a hinga10 on it [the tree]11 and sing thus: ‘The man's turban is like a scholar's, [yet] we have examined the man [and find] that he does not know "Blessed art Thou".’12 Then a certain scholar came who knew that it was a sorb-bush of sixty demons and wrote a sixty-demon amulet for it. Then he heard them saying, ‘Clear away your vessels from here.’

Keteb Meriri:13 there are two Ketebs, one before noon and one after noon; the one before noon is called Ketheb Meriri, and looks like a ladle turning in the jug of kamka.14 That of the afternoon is called Keteb Yashud Zaharaim [‘Destruction that wasteth at noonday’ ];15 it looks like a goat's horn, and wings compass it about.

Abaye was walking along, with R. Papa on his right and R. Huna, son of R. Joshua on his left. Seeing a Keteb Meriri approaching him on the left, he transferred R. Papa to his left and R. Huna son of R. Joshua to his right. Said R. Papa to him: ‘Wherein am I different that you were not afraid on my behalf?’ ‘The time is in your favour,’ replied he.16

From, the first of Tammuz17 until the sixteenth they are certainly to be found; henceforth it is doubtful whether they are about or not, and they are found in the shadow of hazabe18 which have not grown a cubit, and in the morning and evening shadows when these are less than a cubit [in length], but mainly in the shadow of a privy.

R. Joseph said: The following three things cause defective eyesight: combing one's head [when it is] dry, drinking the drip-drop [of wine], and putting on shoes while the feet are still damp.

[Eatables] suspended in a house lead19 to poverty, as people say, ‘He who suspends a basket [of food] puts his food in suspense.’ Yet this relates only to bread, but it does not matter about meat and fish, [since] that is the usual way [of keeping them]. Bran20 in a house leads to poverty. Crumbs in a house lead to poverty: the demons rest upon them on the nights of Sabbaths and on the nights of the fourth days.

The genius appointed over sustenance is called Neki'ah [Cleanliness]; the genius appointed over poverty is called Nabal [Folly or Filth] . Dirt on the spout of a pitcher leads to poverty. He who drinks water out of a plate is liable to a cataract. He who eats cress without [first] washing his hands will suffer fear thirty days.

(1) Jast. conjectures paralysis. [Aruch: ‘headache on one side of the head’, megrim, connecting it with rt. meaning ‘to divide’].
(2) Perhaps vertigo; Rashi: megrim.
(3) Involving danger on account of the demons that inhabit them.
(4) MS.M.: kinura, the name of a shrubby tree, Christ's-thorn or lote (Jast.).
(5) [Var. lec.: add as fifth ‘the shade of the willow-tree].
(6) Charms to counteract them, in which their names are written.
(7) As it is sightless it cannot follow.
(8) In error. Rashi and Rashbam read נפקא אדקלא, it tripped over a palm-tree.
(9) [Or, withered v. supra p. 568, n. 5.]
(10) A musical instrument.
(11) Jast. Perhaps: they danced in chorus about it.
(12) He does not know which benediction to recite when he puts it on ridiculed his pretentions to scholarship.
(13) ‘Bitter destruction’ (v. Deut. XXXII, 24). Regarded here as the name of a demon.
(14) A kind of sauce made of milk and bread-crumbs. — The translation follows the reading of Rashi and Rashbam, which differs from cur. edd.
(15) Ps. XCI, 6.
(16) You have been blessed with good fortune, so the demon will not harm you.
(17) The fourth month of the Jewish year, roughly corresponding to July.
(18) A species of shrub.
(19) Lit., ‘are harmful.’
(20) So Rashbam.

Talmud - Mas. Pesachim 112a

He who lets blood without washing his hands will be afraid seven days. He who trims his hair and does not wash his hands will be afraid three days. He who pares his nails and does not wash his hands will be afraid one day without knowing what affrights him.

[Putting] one's hand to one's nostrils is a step to fear; [putting] one's hand to one's forehead is a step to sleep. It was taught: If food and drink [are kept] under the bed, even if they are covered in iron vessels, an evil spirit rests upon them.

Our Rabbis taught: A man must not drink water either on the nights of the fourth days [Wednesdays] or on the nights of Sabbath,1 and if he does drink, his blood is on his own head, because of the danger. What is the danger? An evil spirit. Yet if he is thirsty what is his remedy? Let him recite the seven ‘voices’ which David uttered over the water and then drink, as it is said: The voice of the Lord is upon the waters; the God of glory thundereth, even the Lord is upon many water. The voice of the Lord is powerful; the voice of the Lord is full of majesty. The voice of the Lord breaketh the cedars; yea, the Lord breaketh in pieces the cedars of the Lebanon ... The voice of the Lord heweth out flames of fire. The voice of the Lord shaketh the wilderness; the Lord shaketh the wilderness of Kadesh. The voice of the Lord maketh the hinds to calve, and strippeth the forests bare; and in His temple all say: ‘Glory.’2 But if [he does] not [say this], let him say thus: ‘Lul shafan anigron anirdafin,3 I dwell among the stars, I walk among lean and fat people.’ But if [he does] not [say this], if there is a man with him he should rouse him and say to him, ‘So-and-so the son of So-and-so, I am thirsty for water,’ and then he can drink. But if not, he knocks the lid against the pitcher, and then he can drink. But if not, let him throw something into it and then drink.
Brachot 6a
    It has been taught: Abba Benjamin says, If the eye had the power to see them, no creature could endure the demons. Abaye says: They are more numerous than we are and they surround us like the ridge round a field. R. Huna says: Every one among us has a thousand on his left hand and ten thousand on his right hand.
2  Raba says: The crushing in the Kallah3  lectures comes from them.4  Fatigue in the knees comes from them. The wearing out of the clothes of the scholars is due to their rubbing against them. The bruising of the feet comes from them. If one wants to discover them,5  let him take sifted ashes and sprinkle around his bed, and in the morning he will see something like the footprints of a cock. If one wishes to see them, let him take the after-birth of a black she-cat, the offspring of a black she-cat, the first-born of a first-born, let him roast it in fire and grind it to powder, and then let him put some into his eye, and he will see them. Let him also pour it into an iron tube and seal it with an iron signet that they6  should not steal it from him. Let him also close his mouth, lest he come to harm. R. Bibi b. Abaye did so,7  saw them and came to harm. The scholars, however, prayed for him and he recovered.
    It has been taught: Abba Benjamin says: A man's prayer is heard [by God] only in the Synagogue. For it is said: To hearken unto the song and to the prayer.
8  The prayer is to be recited where there is song.9  Rabin b. R. Adda says in the name of R. Isaac: How do you know that the Holy One, blessed be He, is to be found in the Synagogue? For it is said: God standeth in the congregation of God.10  And how do you know that if ten people pray together the Divine presence is with them? For it is said: 'God standeth in the congregation of God'.11  And how do you know that if three are sitting as a court of judges the Divine Presence is with them? For it is said: In the midst of the judges He judgeth.12  And how do you know that if two are sitting and studying the Torah together the Divine Presence is with them? For it is said: Then they that feared the Lord spoke one with another;13  and the Lord hearkened and heard, and a book of remembrance was written before Him, for them that feared the Lord and that thought upon His name.14  (What does it mean: 'And that thought upon His name'? — R. Ashi15  says: If a man thought to fulfill a commandment and he did not do it, because he was prevented by force or accident, then the Scripture credits it to him as if he had performed it.) And how do you know that even if one man sits and studies the Torah the Divine Presence is with him? For it is said: In every place where I cause My name to be mentioned I will come unto thee and bless thee.16  Now, since [the Divine presence is] even with one man, why is it necessary to mention two?17  — The words of two are written down in the book of remembrance, the words of one are not written down in the book of remembrance. Since this is the case with two, why mention three? — I might think [the dispensing of] justice is only for making peace, and the Divine Presence does not come [to participate]. Therefore he teaches us that justice also is Torah. Since it is the case with three, why mention ten? — To [a gathering of] ten the Divine Presence comes first, to three, it comes only after they sit down.
    R. Abin
18  son of R. Ada in the name of R. Isaac says [further]: How do you know that the Holy One, blessed be He, puts on tefillin?19  For it is said: The Lord hath sworn by His right hand, and by the arm of His strength.20  'By His right hand': this is the Torah; for it is said: At His right hand was a fiery law unto them.21  'And by the arm of his strength': this is the tefillin; as it is said: The Lord will give strength unto His people.22  And how do you know that the tefillin are a strength to Israel? For it is written: And all the peoples of the earth shall see that the name of the Lord is called upon thee, and they shall be afraid of thee,23  and it has been taught: R. Eliezer the Great says: This refers to the tefillin of the head.24
    R. Nahman b. Isaac said to R. Hiyya b. Abin: What is written in the tefillin of the Lord of the Universe? — He replied to him: And who is like Thy people Israel, a nation one in the earth.
25  Does, then, the Holy One, blessed be He, sing the praises of Israel? — Yes, for it is written: Thou hast avouched the Lord this day … and the Lord hath avouched thee this day.26  The Holy One, blessed be He, said to Israel: You have made me a unique entity27  in the world, and I shall make you a unique entity in the world. 'You have made me a unique entity in the world', as it is said: Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one.28  'And I shall make you a unique entity in the world', as it is said: And who is like Thy people Israel, a nation one in the earth.29  R. Aha b. Raba said to R. Ashi: This accounts for one case, what about the other cases?30  — He replied to him: [They contain the following verses]: For what great nation is there, etc.; And what great nation is there, etc.;31  Happy art thou, O Israel, etc.;32  Or hath God assayed, etc.;33  and To make thee high above all nations.34  If so, there would be too many cases? — Hence [you must say]: For what great nation is there, and And what great nation is there, which are similar, are in one case; Happy art thou, O Israel, and Who is like Thy people, in one case; Or hath God assayed, in one case; and To make thee high, in one case.

R. Isaac says: If one recites the Shema’ upon his bed, it is as though he held a two-edged sword in his hand. (To protect him against the demons). For it is said: Let the high praises of G-d be in their mouth, and a two-edged sword in their hand.(Tehillim 149:6)

How does it indicate this? — Mar Zutra, (some say, R. Ashi) says: [The lesson is] from the preceding verse. For it is written: Let the saints exult in glory, let them sing for joy upon their beds,(Ibid. v. 5) and then it is written: Let the high praises of G-d be in their mouth, and a two-edged sword in their hand.

R. Isaac says further: If] one recites the Shema’ upon his bed, the demons keep away from him. For it is said: And the sons of reshef (E.V. 'Sparks') fly [‘uf] upward.(Iyov 5:7). The word ‘uf refers only to the Torah, as it is written: Wilt thou cause thine eyes to close [hata'if](I.e., if thou neglect it (the Torah). E.V. ‘Wilt thou set thine eyes etc.’)
upon it? It is gone.(Mishle 23:5) And ‘reshef’ refers only to the demons, as it is said: The wasting of hunger, and the devouring of the reshef [fiery bolt] and bitter destruction.(D'varim 32:24)

R. Simeon b. Lakish says: If one studies the Torah, painful sufferings are kept away from him. For it is said: And the sons of reshef fly upward. The word ‘uf refers only to the Torah, as it is written: ‘Wilt thou cause thine eyes to close upon it? It is gone’. And ‘reshef’ refers only to painful sufferings, as it is said: ‘The wasting of hunger, and the devouring of the reshef [fiery bolt].

R. Johanan said to him: This(That the Torah is a protection against painful disease) is known even to school children.(Who study the Pentateuch, where it is plainly said). For it is said: And He said: If thou wilt diligently hearken to the voice of the Hashem thy G-d, and wilt do that which is right in His eyes, and wilt give ear to His commandments, and keep all His statutes, I will put none of the diseases upon thee which I have put upon the Egyptians; for I am Hashem that healeth thee.(Shemot 15:26) Rather [should you say]: If one has the opportunity to study the Torah and does not study it, the Holy One, blessed be He, visits him with ugly and painful sufferings which stir him up. For it is said: I was dumb with silence, I kept silence from the good thing, and my pain was stirred up.(Tehillim 39:3, E.V. ‘I held my peace, had no comfort, and my pain was held in check’).
‘The good thing’ refers only to the Torah, as it is said: For I give you good doctrine; forsake ye not My teaching.(Mishle 4:2)

Chagigah 16a:
“The rabbis taught: Six things are said with regard to demons, three in which they are like the angels: they have wings, they float from one end of the world to the other, and they know what is about to be; and three in which they are like men: they eat and drink, they are fruitful and multiply, and they are mortal.”

Shabbat 66b:

Shabbat 67a:

“For an abscess one should say thus: 'Let it indeed be cut down, let it indeed be healed, let it indeed be overthrown; Sharlai and Amarlai are those angels who were sent from the land of Sodom8  to heal boils and aches: bazak, bazik, bizbazik, mismasik, kamun kamik,9  thy colour [be confined] within thee, thy colour [be confined] within thee,10  thy seat be within thee,11  thy seed be like a kalut12  and like a mule that is not fruitful and does not increase; so be thou not fruitful nor increase in the body of So-and-so.'13  Against ulcers14  one should say thus: 'A drawn sword and a prepared sling, its name is not Joheb, sickness and pains.' Against a demon one should say thus: 'Thou wast closed up; closed up wast thou. Cursed, broken, and destroyed be Bar Tit, Bar Tame, Bar Tina15  as Shamgez, Mezigaz and Istamai.' For a demon of the privy one should say thus: 'On the head of a lion and on the snout of a lioness did we find the demon Bar Shirika Panda; with a bed of leeks I hurled him down, [and] with the jawbone of an ass I smote him.'”